29. October 2012 · Comments Off on Last to Come, First to Go – Indiana’s Delaware (Lenape) · Categories: Reference And Education · Tags: , ,

The Delaware or Lenape “original people” or “true men” were also known as “the eastern people of the stoney country”. The Delaware Tribe was divided into three principal Clans (# 1) the “Turtle” Clan who ranked first and which is the oldest from which the rulers and politicians were chosen, (# 2) the “Wolf” (more commonly known as “Munsey” , or “Muncee”) the clan of hunters, and (# 3) the “Turkey” Clan which is the clan of farmers.

The Delaware maintained an extensive recorded pictograph (183 wooden sticks with pictures) called the Walam Olum (Wallam Ollum), which is an oral history covering many centuries and contains songs about the creation of man and their ancient migration into North America, etc. The Walam Olum firmly upholds the Delaware Tribal nickname of “Grandfathers'” as they were once refered to respectfully by peoples from other eastern Tribes. Their Wallam Ollum history indicates the Delaware Nation had been on the East Coast for seventy-six generations at the time of European contact, and prior to their arrival on the eastern coast their history describes generations of migration eastward from a land beyond great water. The Lenni Lenape spoke in one of the multi-dialect Indian languages that is refered to as Algonquin, hence the Lenni Lenape are refered to by modern researchers as an “Algonquin” peoples. Munceetown in Indiana was dominated by a particular Clan (Family) of Delaware Indians, who were known as the “Muncee” (‘Wolf’) Family, hence the name “Munceetown” or ‘Town of the Muncee Family’ or ‘Wolf Town’. The Delaware (Lenni Lenepe) Indians spoke several Algonquin dialects, of which the three primary were Munsee, Unami, and Unalactigo. The majority of Indians residing in Munsee Town spoke the Munsee dialect, which was distinct from the other two used by the “Delaware” and apparently was more closely related to Mahican. (The Walum Olum is a very controversial record that has been disputed as being “authentic” by most scholars. It tends to go in an out of favor with historians and many questions about its true origins remain a mystery.)

As the white men encroached on the Lenape and as the neighboring Iroquois lost political ground of their own, the pressure for the Lenape to move west or suffer the consequences was intense. Many Lenape began to migrate first to Pennsylvania, near Germantown in 1682; subsequently they moved to the area of the Susquehanna River in 1742; and headed still further west crossing the Ohio near Newcomers and Tuscarawas in eastern Ohio and establishing themselves on the Muskingum River in 1751. They asked permission of the Miami and Piankeshaw tribes to settle between the Ohio and White rivers in Indiana in 1767. They must have felt the time would come when they would have to relocate once again. After the Miami, Shawnee, Delaware and other Ohio Valley tribes fought to hold onto their lands and drive the Americans out, (which led to the signing of the Treaty of Greenville where they were forced to cede land to the United States Government), this left many Lenape without land of their own. It was at this time they began to take the Miami up on their offer to move to the White River and other areas of mostly uninhabited southern Indiana.

Furthering this relocation were incidents involving Christian Indians, converted by Moravian missionaries who were being harassed from Indians that favored warfare. When the Ohio Delaware Indians at Gnadenhutten refused time and time again to join their more traditional brothers in fending off American soldiers, they became targets of violence. The entire Moravian movement was caught in an impossible situation. Distrust grew among whites who saw the Moravian Indians as a haven for rebels. Moravian Missionary, David Zeisburger, who had devoted his entire life to converting the Delaware noted in his journal, “It had been a month since an American militia unit under the command of Lt. Col. David Williamson had systematically killed ninety-six men, women, and children, all of them Indian converts living in the Moravian settlement of Gnadenhutten on the Muskingum River. It appeared as if the developing world of the Ohio Valley was closing in on us and our charges. From the white people, or so-called Christians, we can hope for no protection, and among [the] heathen nations also we have no friends left, such outlaws are we!” Recent developments had not been kind to the Moravians and their communities in the Ohio Valley, but the murder of the Native converts at Gnadenhutten was the most egregious incident. Zeisberger could not believe what had happened, taking solace only in the ultimate mercy of God. This massacre has long been one of the most notorious examples of the mistreatment of Indians by eighteenth-century Euro-Americans. In the aftermath, the surviving mostly Delaware and Munsee Moravian converts scattered throughout the Ohio Valley and found refuge in the homes and villages of their Munsee, Delaware, and Shawnee neighbors. This violence and the fact that the alliance under Little Turtle of the Miami, Blue Jacket of the Shawnee and Buckengaoleas of the Delaware failed to drive the enemy away, forced many Delaware to consider relocating further west to Indiana territory.

Enter William Conner. William Conner was born in what is now Tuscarawas County, Ohio, in 1777. Conner’s family traveled with Moravian missionaries and their Delaware converts. The Conners joined the Delaware and the missionaries on their British-forced removal to Michigan. William’s father, Richard, would go on to settle in Michigan in an area later to become Macomb County, Michigan. Although Conner acquired almost 4,000 acres of land from his father, he would leave home by 1795 and begin trading with the Native Americans around Saginaw Bay. Conner and his older brother John arrived in Indiana during the winter of 1800-1801 as agents for a Canadian fur trader named Angus Mackintosh. Conner and his brother would become officially licensed traders by 1801. They would later settle among the Delaware along the White River. Conner and his brother would also both marry Delaware women. Conner’s wife’s name was Mekinges, daughter of Chief Anderson (Kikthawenund).

Conner helped maintain Delaware Indian loyalty during the War of 1812. Conner would later serve as an interpreter and liaison at the Treaty of St. Mary’s in 1818, in which the Delaware ceded lands in central Indiana for those west of the Mississippi River. In 1818, he petitioned to secure legal right to his land from the Delaware. Upon securing his petition in 1820, Conner divided assets with his business partner William Marshall and provided his own family with horses and goods. Conner chose to stay in Indiana and saw that his wife and children and the rest of the Delaware leave that summer. There is some controversy as to why Conner did not have his family stay or why he did not go along with them. Only three months after his family’s departure, he married Elizabeth Chapman.

The Delaware had as many as fourteen villages along the West Fork of the White River. The White River or Wapihanne flows westward past the Lenape villages of Munseetown, Buckstown (Killbuck’s Village), Andersontown (Chestnut Tree Place or Wapiminskink), Nancytown (Nantikoke’s Town) and Straw’s Town before turning south and reaching the first white settlement in east-central Indiana, the William Conner farm of 1802 (where the Conner Prairie living history village is now located). Continuing south, the White River passed what would become Indianaapolis, or Chanktunoongi meaning “makes a noisy place” referring to Fall Creek, in the Miami dialect of Algonquin.

The county seat of Anderson began as a Delaware village called Wapiminskink meaning “chestnut tree place” and later referred to as Andersontown after Delaware Chief Anderson. The original layout of Anderson followed the Delaware village’s boundaries and trails. Kikthawenund’s individual camp was located at what is now the 900 block of Fletcher Street in Anderson. Kikthawenund was born in the 1740’s in Anderson’s Ferry (Marietta, Pennsylvania). His mother was a daughter of the Lenape tribal chief Netaawatwees and his father was a Swedish trader. Throughout his life, Anderson went by both his father’s name and his native tribal name. Not much is known of his early life but he was much influenced by his grandfather with whom he spent much of his time. As an adult, the Revolutionary war was an influence on many Native people and Kikthawenund was no exception. He sided with White Eyes of the Delaware who fought for the Americans. When the wars in the Ohio Country ended, Anderson was forced to consider relocating to lands the Miami were going to allow the Lenape people to utilize on the White River in central Indiana.

Anderson who became head of the Turkey Clan of the Unami Delaware took his group and settled in a small village on the White River in what someday would become the city of Anderson. His personal residence was a two-story log home, located where the present-day city building now stands. He was able to suppress the liquor trade among his people and during the uprising of Tecumseh, he kept his people out of the controversy as much as possible. In 1818, he signed the Treay of St Mary’s on behalf of his people and reluctantly prepared for another move west. Chief Anderson had four known sons and one daughter, Mekinges. His sons became famous scouts and guides for western-bound wagon trains. Mekinges and William Conner had six children together. When the Delaware were forced to leave Indiana, Mekinges and her children went with them while her husband, for controversial reasons, stayed in Indiana and remarried.

Killbuck’s village on the White River was known as “Buckstown.” William Henry Killbuck was probably born around 1785 in Ohio. He was the son of Gelelemend Killbuck and great grandson of Newcomer of the Turtle Clan of Lenape Delaware. He had a village on the southeast side of the White River, a northern tributary to the Wabash. It was one mile northwest of Chesterfield on a high bluff over-looking White River. The chief was one of the Native Americans converted by the Moravian missionaries who had begun their work in the area in 1801. Chief Killbuck signed the Ft. Wayne, Indiana Treaty of 1809 and the St. Mary’s, Ohio Treaty of 1818. His father actively assisted the English during the French and Indian War and he sided with the English during the early years of the American Revolution. Killbuck’s father later in his life became a convert to Christianity under Moravian Missionary, David Zeisberger and is buried in Goshen, OHio. Killbuck came to Indiana when the Miami and Piankeshaw granted them permission and after he felt they had no choice but to relocate. Killbuck sensed that he was in a no-win situation as his alliances were with the Indians but he wanted to remain neutral and he did not want to fight with Tecumseh and the Prophet’s followers but felt compelled to do so and was never heard from again.

White Eyes was also referred to as, “Captain White Eyes.” He was the son of the famed White Eyes who was loyal to the Americans during the Revolution. He along with his band of Delaware were granted permission to move to a tributary of the Wabash known as the Wapahanne. He chose to move further south in Indiana near the area of present day North Vernon and Madison. White Eyes wanted to remain neutral and made another choice to stay in the region where he was observed in 1814 by a Mr. Burns. According to Mr. Burns, “The entire region, (southeastern Indiana), belonged to old Captain White Eyes and his people. White Eyes did try to make friends with some of the settlers ’round here…he was bold looking, rather sassy, about thirty years of age at that time and around six feet tall. He usually wore a breechclout, leggins’ and moccasins with a blanket thrown over his shoulders. His leggin’s were dark blue wool of fine quality. His hair was long and black with buzzard quills stuck in it. He always carried a gun and a pipe tomahawk.” Mr. Burns refers to White Eyes as a “Potawatomi,” from “out on the Wabash.” He also states there were over a hundred people with White Eyes. Their main encampment at that time was over on Marble Creek close to the Hillis’ blockhouse in Lancaster Township of Jennings County on what would become Stout’s farm and later become part of the United States Proving Ground. Burns continued describing the village, “The camp was on a little knoll. All about it the bark was pulled off from the trees and set on end for shelter. Trees peeled as high as they could reach and for a good bit around as they had about fifteen wigwams.”

White Eyes was married and his wife also befriended the settlers. He was blamed for the Pigeon Roost Massacre. He did not participate in that or any other attack on settlements. He was blamed for an attack on a settlement, north of Madison where log cabins were burned out but he again had nothing to do with it. He rode his horse when he traveled and used others for packing things from place to place. They went to Madison to trade for liquor, cloth, guns, ammunition and processed flour, sugar and other items. White Eyes was murdered for deeds he had no part of and his body was thrown down a sinkhole in southeastern Indiana. Today, there is a marker nearby honoring the life of White Eyes.

Tahunquecoppi/Chief Pipe (Hopocan) was a Lenape who was from Ohio. Pipe Creek in Madison County is named for the Delaware leader Chief Pipe, also called Captain Pipe. One of his Delaware names was Tahunquecoppi meaning “Tobacco Pipe.” One source states that Hopocan or Captain Pipe was born about 1725; others put his birth at 1740. Little is known of his early years. He was probably born near the Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania. His uncle was Chief Custaloga, whom he succeeded as Chief. Captain Pipe likely spent his early years either at Custaloga’s Town, along French Creek in Mercer County, PA, or Custaloga’s other main village, Cussewago, at the present site of Meadville, PA in Crawford County.

Captain Pipe is first mentioned historically in 1759 among the warriors at a conference held at Fort Pitt, July, 1759, between the agent of Sir William Johnston, Hugh Mercer, the Iroquois, Delawares and Shawnees. During the American Revolution, Captain Pipe first tried to remain neutral to both the British and the Americans. He refused to take up arms against the Americans even after General Edward Hand killed his mother, brother, and a few of his children during a military campaign in 1778. The Delawares that Hand attacked were neutral, but he sought to protect American settlers in the Ohio Country from Indian attacks, including killing innocent natives.

Also, in 1778, Captain Pipe was with White Eyes and Killbuck when they signed the first-ever treaty between the Continental Congress and Native people. Later that same year, General Lachlan McIntosh, the American commander at Fort Pitt, requested permission from the Delaware Indians to march through their territory to attack Fort Detroit. Captain Pipe and other Delaware chiefs agreed, as long as the soldiers would build a fort to protect the Delaware form both the British and white settlers. McIntosh agreed and had Fort Laurens built near the Delaware villages in eastern Ohio. After constructing the fort, McIntosh demanded that the Ohio Country natives assist the Americans in capturing Fort Detroit. If the Indians refused, McIntosh threatened them with extermination.

Realizing how weak McIntosh’s force was and believing that the Americans could not protect them from the British and their native allies, Captain Pipe and many other Delaware Indians began to form a friendlier relationship with the English. Also in 1778, Pipe, and the warlike members of his tribe, departed from the Tuscarawas and located on the Walhonding River, about fifteen miles above the present site of Coshocton, Ohio. The Americans pushed Captain Pipe solidly to England’s side in 1781, when Colonel Daniel Brodhead attacked and destroyed this village, Captain Pipe became the leader of those natives who supported the British and moved his people to the Tymochtee Creek near the Sandusky River. This village was known as “Pipe’s Town,” located near the village of Crawford in Wyandot County. He spent the remainder of the war trying to thwart American expansion into the Ohio Country.

In 1782, he participated in the defeat of the Crawford Expedition headed by William Crawford. Seeking vengeance for the Gnadenhutten Massacre, Captain Pipe was probably the one who marked Crawford for death by painting his face black. He also threatened to kill Simon Girty if he tried to intercede on Crawford’s behalf while the natives first tortured and then executed Crawford. Pipe was said to be a merciless foe. Following the Revolution, Captain Pipe continued to resist white settlement of the Ohio Country (known as the Northwest Territory at this point). By the 1810s and 1820s, Captain Pipe realized his people had little chance against the Americans and began to negotiate treaties. The settlers violated these agreements, moving onto land set aside for the Delaware. In the spring of 1812, Old Captain Pipe and his people quietly removed westward, locating near the present town of Orestes in Madison County, Indiana. The Treaty of St. Mary’s in 1818 gave the tribes three years before having to be removed from this area. They departed peacefully in 1821 and it is uncertain if Chief Pipe was still alive. It is said that he died around 1818 near Orestes and is supposedly buried there. Other reports claim that he removed to Canada and died there. Captain Pipe had a son also named Captain Pipe who signed many treaties and moved with the Delaware people to Kansas.

Nantikoke or (Nancytown)- was a smaller village than most but was named in honor of the Nantikoke or Naticoke people of which the term Nancy is a corruption. First contact with the Nanticoke Tribe was recorded by Captain John Smith in 1608. While exploring the Chesapeake Bay, Smith and his crew sailed onto the Kuskarawaok River. Nanticoke is translated from the original Nantaquak meaning the tidewater people or people of the tidewaters. As their numbers dwindled and pressures white settlers pushed the Nanticoke north and west, many united with the Lenape and some came with them all the way to Indiana, maintaining their group’s identity as separately. It is not known if they managed to maintain that tradition all the way to Kansas after their removal from Indiana in 1821.

Strawtown – a prehistoric site along the White River known as the Strawtown enclosure. It is a large circular, earthen embankment and ditch structure in Hamilton County, Indiana measuring approximately 80-90 meters in diameter. The enclosure has been recognized as a significant prehistoric earthwork, appearing in several early accounts. The site was intensively occupied. Ceramics from the site include Great Lakes wares, Fort Ancient guilloche pottery, and shell-tempered Oneota-like sherds. Excavations were conducted in the enclosure in 2001, 2002, 2003, and 2004. The site dates to the Late Prehistoric/Mississippian periods (circa AD 1100-1450). Several Late Prehistoric settlement sites are present in the immediate vicinity of Strawtown, at least two of which (the Strawtown enclosure and the Castor Farm site) are clearly eligible for the National Register of Historic Places. Hamilton County recently purchased 750 acres (containing at least 115 archaeological sites) in the vicinity of Strawtown to be developed as an archaeological research/tourism park.

Strawtown – Delaware Village – located some distance from the pre-historic site and was possibly named for a Delaware-Mohican named Straw. More research is needed to be certain.

The Delaware removed from Indiana in 1821 to Kansas and then Oklahoma. There are many Delaware (Lenape) descendants of these people living in Oklahoma and some often come to events and visit their Indiana and Ohio homelands.

16. October 2012 · Comments Off on How To Remove And Prevent Mold The Effective Way · Categories: Home Improvement · Tags: , ,

In order to effectively remove mold inside your basement, you will need to find the source of the problem. Basement mold cleaning is a horrendous problem. If left alone for too long, a basement can become an infestation place for mold. Basement mold cleaning is all about finding the source, and then making sure the mold problem does not come back again. When dealing with basements, there is a huge problem because they are underground, and humid, and a dark place. In most cases, mold does seep into the basement because of the elevation, that it is under the house. In a basement, it is usually warm and has a good potential for mold growth. Black mold is usually found around your perimeter wall and on the wood ceilings and pilings.

If you have black mold on the wood of your basement, then you will need to use a wire brush and a natural cleaning product to remove the black mold. In a basement mold cleaning project, you will have to use a strong natural cleaning product that can remove black mold, and also prevent it from coming back. In most cases with basements, many contractors will remove the black mold and mildew. But what they will forget about is preventing it from coming back. Since a basement is warm and usually humid, you are going to need to find the source of the problem. After you find the source of the problem, make sure you decrease humidity levels, and also increase air flow of the basement.

Resolve moisture problem by taking out any water or damaged goods from a moisture intrusion event. Most importantly, the source of the water accumulation must be identified and fixed or fungal growth will continue to occur. If you experienced severe flooding or a water leak, then you want to remove or pump out the standing water, followed by drying the area. You may also want to use fans and dehumidifiers if the area is really wet. When dealing with mold inside the basement, be sure to protect yourself and use natural products that will not damage the material or yourself. A basement can be a difficult place to work in. Be sure to have proper equipment and proper products to use when cleaning your basement. Seal off the air conditioning vents, and also any openings that will release spores into other parts of the house.

Try to keep humidity levels low, and circulate the air throughout the entire basement. After using a natural cleaning product and removing any mold from the wood or carpeting inside your basement, be sure to use an air blower to catch spores that have been liberated into the air from the work. The quicker you address the problem, the less extensive the damage will be since it may only take 24 to 48 hours for toxic mold to germinate and grow. Prompt remediation of contaminated areas and materials should be the primary response to water intrusion and to indoor fungal growth.

09. October 2012 · Comments Off on Event Venue – 8 Tips for Throwing a Great Event · Categories: Management · Tags: , ,

Every successful event planner will tell you that there are going to be a few problems along the way. Event planning involves time and effort, thinking about the “big picture” while also attending to minute details. Here are some guidelines that should help you make your event a great event.

1. Know your Goals

Before you even start planning your event, be sure you can clearly articulate what you hope to accomplish. Do you want to make your best friend feel loved and appreciated? Do you want to sell more Tupperware? Do you what to land that million-dollar deal? The more you know about what you want from your event, the more prepared you will be to plan a great event.

2. Do your Homework

Don’t rent the first meeting hall you find or hire the first caterer that turns in a bid. Do some research. Know what’s available and how much it costs. Be educated enough to make the best, most cost-effective choices. Try to learn from others’ experience, and apply their lessons to your event planning process. The better educated you are, the more likely you will be to have a great event that everyone talks about for ages!

3. Make Having Fun the Object

No matter what purpose your event serves, it will have to be a fun, entertaining event to succeed. And you must have as much fun as your guests. It’s even important that the event planning process is fun. Be creative. Be resourceful. Remember that events are supposed to be fun, and make your great event the most fun ever.

4. Develop and Stick to your Event Budget

Event planners have learned that you can spend every penny you have on just one great event. But this isn’t necessary. The quality of an event does not depend on the dollar investment, rather it depends on effective event planning. You’ve already done your research and, by now, you should a good idea of what the different elements will cost. Now, sit down and make a list of everything you need. Assign low and high estimates to each item so that you get a range of your total possible cost. Now, with the amount available in mind, go back and inspect each entry. Where can you save, and where do you need to spend a certain amount? Once you’ve settled on the most affordable combination, go out and do what you’ve decided. Try not to stray too far from your budget. You can have a great event for as little or as much as your willing to spend. Deciding up front what that will be will give you long-run savings and make the most of your resources.

5. Rely on the Kindness of Others

Get co-workers, family, and friends to pitch in with the planning process. They’ll have some good ideas about getting value services, interesting and affordable decorations, possible entertainment, and a host of other details. There’s no need to take everything on by yourself. You’ll suffer event planning burn-out, and your event will reflect it. Get people to help you plan and put on a great event.

6. Build Them Up, Then Don’t Let Them Down

Try to get people excited about your event, and then give them what they expect. Use colorful invitations to set the mood. Talk to them about the event while you’re preparing for it. Ask others to help make decisions along the way. Get them involved, and they’ll not only look forward to it, they’ll become instrumental in making it a great event.

7. Get the Word Out

Depending on who you want to come to your event, it’s important to make sure they’re aware of the date, time, and location. Depending on the size of the event, you’ll want to make sure the people you’re inviting make the time to plan to attending. You can build interest by advertising. Low-budget advertising might consist of posting flyers around the community or making a few phone calls to remind people about your event. More costly advertising methods include newspaper and media announcements, printed invitations and posters, and e-mail reminders. Make sure you’ve focused on the places your guests are most likely to hear about your event, and you’ll have a great event they’ll be excited to attend.

8. Keep Calm, Cool, and Collected

Event planning is a lot of work, and it’s easy to be overcome with stress. But if you’re too stressed or exhausted, you can’t plan or oversee a great event. As you schedule your event planning activities, build in “me time” to take care of your own physical and psychological health. Try going to a spa or doing some yoga. Or go out and get some physical exercise and sunshine. Don’t let your sense of responsibility lead you down the wrong road. It will sabotage your best efforts and keep your event from being the memorable occasion you’ve worked so hard to create.

Having a great event isn’t easy. It requires energy, attention, and careful decision-making. Event planners must cope with changing conditions and lost opportunities. But successful event planners follow these guidelines and are happy to know they’ve met their goal of hosting a fun, memorable great event.

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03. October 2012 · Comments Off on Wind Power–The Best Green Energy Source · Categories: Environment · Tags: , ,

Electricity produced by wind turbines is green power in that it causes no environmental pollution. No greenhouse gases which contribute to climate change are produced either. Wind power generation can be on a large scale,which is the case with most commercial projects,or on a small scale as with home owner turbines.

Wind is the cheapest form of renewable energy without a doubt. Solar energy is also clean,green,power but is more expensive and limited in output. Solar panels are presently expensive in relation to the power they can produce. Nuclear energy supplies a lot of the power requirements in some countries,notably in Europe.

There is however much public opposition to building new nuclear power plants.

In the USA natural gas is the biggest form of new energy production. Wind power is the next in line. In 2008 wind turbines will produce about 1% of the United States power needs. Around 30% of new energy production installed in 2007 was wind power.

Many consumers now realise that green energy must be our highest priority in future,if we are to minimise climate change and it effects. The trend to building fossil fuel powered generating stations must be reversed.

Home owners and farmers can help with the transition to clean power by installing small wind turbines to supply all or part of their electricity needs. These turbines can be purchased from a number of manufacturers and can be installed as a rooftop wind turbine or on a small free standing tower.

Commercial wind turbines are quite expensive in relation to power output. A better solution for many is to build their own low cost wind turbine. A good turbine can be built from auto parts and a few odds and ends at very low cost. Plans and instructions are available for this project.

Any excess power production can be sold to the power utility in many areas thus reducing the cost even further. Power can also be stored in batteries for use when the wind is too light. Even a light breeze will however produce power.

The average home owner can easily build a small wind turbine or several of them to supply part or all of the power required. All that is needed is simple tools and some auto parts and wood. Several can be built for the cost of one commercial wind turbine.

Not a bad business also for anyone who wants to make them for resale. The demand for a low cost turbine is there and can only grow in years ahead.

Why not build your own wind power turbine now and produce your own free green electricity. You will be doing mother earth a favor by reducing atmospheric pollution. This is an idea whose time has come.

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03. October 2012 · Comments Off on Fashion in Your Fifties – How to Stay Stylish · Categories: Shopping And Product Reviews · Tags: ,
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